LoRa Basics Modem and LoRa Edge documentation

Glossary

ALC Sync
Application Layer Clock Synchronization

Application package defined by the LoRa Alliance for synchronizing time. The LoRa Cloud™ Device & Application Services implements a subset of this specification, wrapped in LoRa Basics Modem device management frames.

almanac

The GPS almanac is a data set that includes information about the state of the entire GPS satellite constellation, as well as coarse data on every satellite in orbit.

AppKey

The AppKey is an AES128 root key specific to an end device. Whenever an end device joins a network via over-the-air-activation(OTAA), the AppKey is used to derive the NwkSKey and AppSKey session keys (specific to that end device) to encrypt and verify network communication and application data.

application server

The server that handles the LoRaWAN® application layer. It implements all user application logic, interfaces with the LoRaWAN network server to receive uplink payloads and generates downlinks to be sent.

Basics Modem
LoRa Basics Modem

LoRa Basics™ Modem includes a modem and services from Semtech designed to operate on a LoRaWAN network. It includes services running on the microcontroller of an end device. C code is available on Github.

Basics Modem-E
LoRa Basics Modem-E

LoRa Basics™ Modem-E is a Semtech modem and services running on the LR1110 chip and designed to operate on a LoRaWAN network. Detailed features and description are available in the LoRa® Developer portal.

Claim

The process of associating a device with an owner.

device application

The firmware that performs the primary functions of a network device, including data collection, actuation, and data exchange with the application server.

Device Management

Service provided by Semtech’s LoRa Basics Modem and LoRa Basics Modem-E and the LoRa Cloud Device & Application Services to remotely manage an end device.

DM frame
Device Management frame

A LoRaWAN network data frame containing Device Management data that is sent to FPort 199 by default.

Message(s) from the Network Server or the Application Server to the end device.

end device

Object with a LoRa chipset connected to a LoRaWAN network.

GNSS
Global Navigation Satellite System

A constellation of satellites providing signals from space that enable the calculation of a position and precise time of day by a receiver.

join server

A server component in a LoRaWAN network that manages and delivers keys in a highly-secure manner, so that a device’s root key is never exposed. More details are available in the documentation for Semtech’s LoRa Cloud Device Join Service.

LEAMS
LoRa Edge Asset Management System

A collection of hardware and software solutions for implementing asset tracking.

LFU
Large File Upload

One of the LoRa Cloud Device & Application Services used to reliably transfer one buffer of data at a time, abstracting the underlying network layer and protecting against packet losses. For more information, see the Large File Upload chapter.

LoRa Basics Modem(s)

Semtech’s modem portfolio, currently LoRa Basics Modem and LoRa Basics Modem-E.

LoRa Cloud Geolocation Service

Semtech’s simple cloud API that can be easily integrated with a LoRaWAN network or application server to enable estimating the location of any LoRa-based device. The LoRa Cloud Geolocation Service can resolve GNSS, Wi-Fi, or radio (RSSI/TDOA) requests. Geolocation services are available with a pay-per-call pricing model.

LoRa Cloud™ Device & Application Services
LoRa Cloud Device & Application Services

A protocol for managing common device functionality at the application layer for devices operating on the LoRaWAN protocol. The LoRa Cloud Device & Application Services interface with a user application server to process uplinks from a Modem and generate downlinks required by LoRa Basics Modem or LoRa Basics Modem-E. (e.g. ALC Sync) or that are initiated by a user requests (e.g. reset or get specific data). The Device & Application Service can be purchased monthly or annually.

LoRaWAN®
LoRaWAN

A specification for a low power wide area network that uses Semtech’s LoRa radio modulation.

LoRaWAN® network server
LoRaWAN network server

The device management and routing server for a LoRaWAN network.

LPWAN

Low Power Wide Area Network.

LR1110

Semtech LoRa transceiver with low power geolocation features. The LR1110 can be used as a transceiver or flashed with modem firmware. For more information, see Semtech’s product page.

MCU
Microcontroller Unit

This is where the end-device application runs on an end device.

MIC
Message Integrity Code

In LoRaWAN context, this is the 4 MSB output of an AES-CMAC operation. It is appended to avoid packet tampering.

MTU
Maximum Transmission Unit

The amount of data that can be transferred at a time. LoRaWAN® is a variable MTU protocol.

NAV message

A message generated by the LR1110 for the device application after a GNSS scan.

OTA
Over-the-Air

An action performed via radio communication.

POR
Power On Reset

An automatic systematic reset performed when the device is powered up.

ROSE
Reliable Octet Stream Encoding

One of the LoRa Cloud Device & Application Services. It is used to reliably transfer streams of data, abstracting the variable MTU and protecting against packet loss. For more information, see the ROSE page.

RSSI
Received Signal Strength Indicator

A numerical indicator of the power level received by a device. It can be used for approximating distance.

RTC
Real Time Clock

Dedicated module to keep accurate time. Real Time Clocks are usually embedded inside microcontrollers, however, they can also be dedicated modules.

TDOA
Time Difference Of Arrival

A technique used to calculate the position of a device by precisely time-stamping the reception of a device packet on several spatially-diverse receivers.

unclaim

The process of disassociating a device from an owner and making the device eligible to be claimed.

Message(s) from an end device to the Network Server or the Application Server.

Wi-Fi

A specification of IEEE standards that provide wireless networking capabilities.

XTAL
Crystal

Piezo-electric component of a crystal oscillator.